Horses are herbivorous and basically exhibit hind gut fermentation. So it’s very much essential to exercise proper feeding management in horses in order to block both over feeding and under feeding. The salient features are highlighted regarding feeding.
1. Do not provide non nitrogenous protein substances like urea to horses of all categories as they can not digest like ruminants.
2. Horses should be supplied dry matter at least 1.5% of body weight.
Body weight (kg)= heart girth (cm)* 3.1 for medium breeds
4. The most typical concentrated feed given to horse are oats, barley, gram and wheat bran.
6. For greater use and assimilation of nutrients, the entire daily ration may be divided into 4-6 separate meals.
7. Regularity in feeding, avoid whole feeding before and after exercise and changing ration composition gradually are most important symbols in horse feeding.
8. In horses it’s particular that fodder roughage is given before grains. But if chopped fodder is available then it may be mixed with grains or concentrate.
9. No group feeding is advised so far as grain feeding is concerned.
10. To prevent mineral deficiency, daily 25-40 gm mineral mix is added with concentrates.
12. For moderate work, it requires 0.86 kg DCP, 50 gm Calcium, 50 gm phosphorous and 135 mg carotene.
13. And for heavy work, it requires 1.10 kg DCP, 60 gm calcium, 60 gm phosphorus and 170 mg carotene.
14. Horses should not be watered at least 20-30 minutes before and after vigorous exercise.
15. The need for drinking water is 36liters each day and may vary according to seasons as in summer the demand of water increases.
16. For general practise, it is to offer water before feeding.
17. In general watering program, watering should be done three times a day in summer and twice a day at other seasons.
18. Early spring is regarded as best breeding period in india.
19. Puberty is attained at age 18 months.
20. Mating should be allowed at 3 yrs old when it attains 75% of body weight,
21. Eestrous cycle is 21 days and duration of heat is 4-6 days.
22. The ought to be bred two to three days after appearance of heat symptoms.
23. The tail of the mare should be bandaged and kept away to one side in order to not interfere during copulation.
24. For breeding, 1 stallion is sufficient for 30-40 mares.
26. One most visible sight at the time of parturition is that the appearance of beads of wax on teats one or two days before delivery.